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By studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

  1. Explain the basic principles of training: overload, reversibility, and specificity.

  2. Discuss the role that genetics plays in determining V̇O2 max.

  3. Describe the typical change in V̇O2 max with endurance-training programs and the effect of the initial (pretraining) value on the magnitude of the increase.

  4. Identify typical V̇O2 max values for various sedentary, active, and athletic populations.

  5. Understand the contribution of heart rate, stroke volume, and the a-v̄ O2 difference in determining V̇O2 max.

  6. Discuss how training increases V̇O2 max.

  7. Define preload, afterload, and contractility, and discuss the role of each in the increase in the maximal stroke volume that occurs with endurance training.

  8. Describe the changes in muscle structure that are responsible for the increase in the maximal a-v̄ O2 difference with endurance training.

  9. List and discuss the primary changes that occur in skeletal muscle as a result of endurance training.

  10. Explain how “high-intensity” endurance training improves acid-base balance during exercise.

  11. Outline the “big picture” changes that occur in skeletal muscle as a result of exercise training and discuss the specificity of exercise training responses.

  12. List the four primary signal transduction pathways in skeletal muscle.

  13. List and define the function of important secondary messengers in skeletal muscle.

  14. Outline the signaling events that lead to endurance training-induced muscle adaptation.

  15. Discuss how changes in “central command” and “peripheral feedback” following an endurance training program can lower the heart rate, ventilation, and catecholamine responses to a submaximal exercise bout.

  16. Describe the underlying causes of the decrease in V̇O2 max that occurs with cessation of endurance training.

  17. Discuss the effect of anaerobic training on performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise.

  18. Describe the effect of anaerobic on the biochemical properties of skeletal muscle fibers.


Principles of Training

  • Overload and Reversibility

  • Specificity

Endurance Training and V̇O2 Max

  • Training Programs and Changes in V̇O2 Max

Why Does Exercise Training Improve V̇O2 Max?

  • Stroke Volume

  • Arteriovenous O2 Difference

Endurance Training: Effects on Performance and Homeostasis

  • Endurance Training-Induced Changes in Fiber Type and Capillarity

  • Endurance Training Increases Mitochondrial Content in Skeletal Muscle Fibers

  • Training-Induced Changes in Muscle Fuel Utilization

  • Endurance Training Improves Muscle Antioxidant Capacity

  • Exercise Training Improves Acid-Base Balance during Exercise

Molecular Bases of Exercise Training Adaptation

  • Training Adaptation—Big Picture

  • Specificity of Exercise Training Responses

  • Primary Signal Transduction Pathways in Skeletal Muscle

  • Secondary Messengers in Skeletal Muscle

Signaling Events Leading to Endurance Training-Induced Muscle Adaptation

Endurance Training: Links between Muscle and Systemic Physiology

  • Peripheral Feedback

  • Central Command

Detraining Following Endurance Training

Muscle Adaptations to Anaerobic Exercise Training

  • Anaerobic Training-Induced Increases in Performance

  • Anaerobic Training-Induced Changes in Skeletal Muscles

Key Terms

5’adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK)



CaMK (calmodulin-dependent kinase)

IGF-1/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

NFκB (nuclear factor kappa B)


PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α)

p38 (mitogen activated kinase p38)



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