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3-MH

3-methylhistidine

24HR

24-hour dietary recall

25(OH)D

serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D

AA

amino acids

ABP

Athlete Biological Passport

AC

activation coefficient

ACL

anterior cruciate ligament

ACSM

American College of Sports Medicine

ACT

Australian Capital Territory

ADP

adenosine diphosphate

AI

adequate intake

AIS

Australian Institute of Sport

ALA

alpha-linoleic acid

AMDR

acceptable macronutrient distribution range

AMP

adenosine monophosphate

AMPK

AMP-activated protein kinase

ASADA

Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority

AST

aspartate aminotransferase

AT

adaptive thermogenesis

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

BIA

bioelectrical impedance analysis

BIS

bioelectrical spectroscopy

BM

body mass

BMD

bone mineral density

BMI

body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m2))

BMR

basal metabolic rate

CHO

carbohydrate

CO2

carbon dioxide

CP

creatine phosphate

CT

computed tomography

CV

coefficient of variation

CYP2R1

cytochrome P-450 system

DHA

docosahexaenoic acid

DHEA

dehydroepiandrosterone

DIASS

Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score

DIT

diet-induced thermogenesis

DLW

doubly labelled water

DNL

de novo lipogenesis

DONE

Determinants of Nutrition and Eating

DRI

dietary reference intake

DRV

dietary reference value

DXA

dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

EA

energy availability

EAA

essential amino acids

E-AC

co-enzyme activity

EAR

estimated average requirement

E-ASTAC

erythrocyte aspartate amino transferase activation coefficient

EE

energy expenditure

EEE

energy expended in exercise

EER

estimated energy requirement

EFSA

European Food Safety Authority

E-GRAC

erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficients

EI

energy intake

EI:BMR

ratio of reported energy intakes (EI) to predicted basal metabolic rates (BMR)

Ein

energy in (energy intake)

Eout

energy out

EPA

eicosapentaenoic acid

EPOC

excess post-exercise oxygen consumption

EXOS

exercise-oxidative stress

FA

fatty acid(s)

FDA

Food and Drug Administration (USA)

FFA

free fatty acids

FFM

fat-free mass

FFQ

food frequency questionnaire

FHA

functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea

FM

fat mass

FODMAPS

fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols

FRAR

food-related adverse reactions

FT

fast twitch

GER

gastro-oesophageal reflux

GERD

gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

GH

growth hormone

GI

glycaemic index

GIT

gastrointestinal tract

GLUT

glucose transporter

GnRH

gonadotropin-releasing hormone

HACCP

hazard analysis and critical control points

Hbmass

haemoglobin mass

HBV

high biological value

IBD

inflammatory bowel disease

IBS

irritable bowel syndrome

IDA

iron deficiency anaemia

IDNA

iron deficiency non-anaemia

IGF-I and IGF-II

insulin-like growth factors I and II

IL-6

interleukin 6

IOC

International Olympic Committee

IPC

International Paralympic Committee

ISAK

International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry

ISCD

International Society for Clinical Densitometry

IV

intravenous

LA

linoleic acid

LBM

lean body mass

LCHF

low CHO, high fat

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

LEA

low energy availability

LEU

leucine

LH

luteinising hormone

LMI

lean mass index

MCHC

mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration

MCV

mean cell volume

MDA

malondialdehyde

MET

metabolic equivalent of task

MPS

muscle protein synthesis

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

mRNA

messenger RNA

MW

minimal weight

NAD

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NEAT

non-exercise activity thermogenesis

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NHMRC

National Health and Medical Research Council

NMES

neuromuscular-electrical stimulation

NRV

nutrient reference value

NSAID

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

NSW

New South Wales

OC

osteocalcin

PAL

physical activity level

PCOS

polycystic ovarian syndrome

PHV

peak height velocity

PICP

procollagen carboxyterminal propeptide

PINES

Professionals in Nutrition and Exercise Science

PLP

plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate

PTH

parathyroid hormone

RBC

red blood cells

RCT

randomised controlled trial

RDI (also RDA)

recommended dietary intake

RED-S

relative energy deficiency in sport

RER

respiratory exchange ratio

RMR

resting metabolic rate

RMRratio

ratio between measured and predicted resting metabolic rate

RN

recommended nutrient intake

ROS

reactive oxygen species

RPE

rate of perceived exertion

RQ

respiratory quotient

SD

standard deviation

SDT

suggested dietary targets

SF

serum ferritin

SMR

sleep metabolic rate

SNRI

selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor

SPA

spontaneous physical activity

SSRI

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

sTfR

soluble/serum transferrin receptor

sTfR-F index

ratio of sTfR to log SF

TBARS

thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

TCA

tricarboxylic acid

TEA

thermic effect of activity

TEE

thermic effect of exercise

TEF

thermic effect of food

TEM

thermic effect of a meal

TfR

transferrin receptors

TGA

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

TK

transketolase

UIL

upper intake level

UK

United Kingdom

UL

upper level of intake

URTI

upper respiratory tract infection

USA

United States of America

UV

ultraviolet

UWW

underwater weighing

VDBP

vitamin D-binding protein

VO2max

maximal oxygen uptake

VO2peak

peak oxygen uptake

W

watt

WA

Western Australia

WADA

World Anti-Doping Agency

WHO

World Health Organization

ww

wet weight

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