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Upper Extremity
Joint Tested Motion/Range (degrees) Patient Position Fulcrum/Axis Stationary Arm Moving Arm
Shoulder Flexion/0-170 to 180 Supine Acromion process Midaxillary line of the thorax Lateral midline of the humerus using the lateral epicondyle of the humerus for reference
  Extension/0-50 to 60 Prone/supine with arm over edge Acromion process Midaxillary line of the thorax Lateral midline of the humerus using the lateral epicondyle of the humerus for reference
  Abduction/0-170 to 180 Supine Anterior aspect of the acromion process Parallel to the midline of the anterior aspect of the sternum Medial midline of the humerus
  Adduction (return from abduction)/180-0 Supine Anterior aspect of the acromion process Parallel to the midline of the anterior aspect of the sternum Medial midline of the humerus
  Horizontal adduction/0-120 Seated Superiorly on the acromion process of the scapula through the head of the humerus Along the midline of the shoulder toward the neck Along the midshaft of the humerus, in line with the lateral epicondyles of the humerus
  Horizontal abduction/0-120 Seated Superiorly on the acromion process of the scapula through the head of the humerus Aligned on the midline of the shoulder toward the neck Along the midshaft of the humerus, in line with the lateral epicondyle of the humerus
  Internal rotation/0-60 to 100 Supine Olecranon process Parallel or perpendicular to the floor Ulna using the olecranon process and ulnar styloid for reference
  External rotation/0-80 to 90 Supine Olecranon process Parallel or perpendicular to the floor Ulna using the olecranon process and ulnar styloid for reference
Elbow Flexion/0-145 Supine/seated Lateral epicondyle of the humerus Lateral midline of the humerus using the center of the acromion process for reference Lateral midline of the radius using the radial head and radial styloid process for reference
  Extension/145-0 Supine/seated Lateral epicondyle of the humerus Lateral midline of the humerus using the center of the acromion process for reference Lateral midline of the radius using the radial head and radial styloid process for reference
Radioulnar Pronation/0-90 Supine/seated Lateral to the ulnar styloid process Parallel to the anterior midline of the humerus Posterior aspect of the forearm, just proximal to the styloid process of the radius and ulna
  Supination/0-90 Supine/seated Medial to the ulnar styloid process Parallel to the anterior midline of the humerus Anterior aspect of the forearm, just proximal to the styloid process of the radius and ulna
Wrist Flexion/0-90 Seated Lateral aspect of the wrists over the triquetrum Lateral midline of the ulna using the olecranon and ulnar styloid process for reference Lateral midline of the fifth metacarpal
  Extension/0-70 Seated Lateral aspect of the wrists over the triquetrum Lateral midline of the ulna using the olecranon and ulnar styloid process for reference Lateral midline of the fifth metacarpal
  Radial deviation/0-25 Seated Over the middle of the posterior aspect of the wrist over the capitate Posterior midline of the forearm using the lateral epicondyle of the humerus ...

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