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Neuroplasticity An emerging body of research evidence supporting the hypothesis that brain remodeling throughout life is possible and is enhanced by the type and amount of practice related to skill acquisition.
Neurologic examination An essential component of a comprehensive physical examination that includes the systems review and a comprehensive and systematic examination of both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in conjunction with other body systems. The examination should determine impairments in body function and structure, limitations in functional activities, and participation restrictions.
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)/stroke Occurs when blood flow interruption within brain blood vessels narrows or blocks a vessel (ischemia) or ruptures a vessel (hemorrhage).
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) Results from a blow to the head and/or sudden acceleration-deceleration of the head, such as with motor vehicle accidents. TBIs can be closed or open in terms of whether or not the skull is fractured.
Mild TBI (mTBI) A brain injury causing microscopic damage that may not be detectable on neuroimaging and may or may not involve a loss of consciousness.
Brain tumor A mass or growth of abnormal cells in the brain.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) An injury most commonly when there is fracture, dislocation, and/or subluxation of the vertebrae into the spinal cord.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) A chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease that affects neurons in the CNS.
Parkinson disease (PD) The second most common, progressive neurodegenerative disorder with deficits in the basal ganglia and its connections to movement and posturing, cognitive and psychiatric functions.
Huntington disease (HD) A progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by an autosomal dominant mutation where there is a severe loss of neurons in the caudate and putamen of the basal ganglia.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) A slow, progressive, asymmetric atrophy with muscular weakness and hyperreflexia.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) A group of neuropathic conditions affecting the PNS, causing progressive weakness due to motor neuropathy and diminished or absent reflexes.
Postpolio syndrome (PPS) A condition that affects people with a history of polio, followed by a period of neurologic stability, before developing new or exacerbated symptoms several years after the acute poliomyelitis infection.
Peripheral neuropathy Damage to nerves leading to impaired sensation, movement, gland, or organ function.
Vestibular disorders Categorized by their location as peripheral, central, or both. Peripheral vestibular disorders involve the peripheral sensory apparatus and/or inner ear structures and/or the vestibular nerve. Central vestibular disorders result from damage to the vestibular nuclei, the cerebellum, and the brainstem, including vestibular pathways within the brainstem that mediate vestibular reflexes.
Outcome measure A type of test and measure that can be used in the patient management process to assist in the diagnosis and prognosis of patient care and tracking changes in human performance and health status.
Clinical practice guideline (CPG) Recommendations based on the systematic review and evaluation of research evidence used to guide best practice for a specific condition.

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