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CHAPTER 2. NEUROMUSCULAR AND NERVOUS SYSTEM

NEUROSCIENCE/NEUROANATOMY QUESTIONS

A 65-year-old man demonstrates ataxic movements during reaching and gait activities. Which region of the brain was most likely affected by the CVA?

A. Brainstem

B. Cerebellum

C. Frontal lobe

D. Parietal lobe

The answer is B. The cerebellum has a major role in the coordination of voluntary movement. Damage to the cerebellum often results in ataxia.

Damage to the basal ganglia is likely to result in what clinical signs and symptoms?

A. Unilateral sensory and motor loss

B. Bilateral sensory and motor loss

C. Rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, and tremor

D. Spasticity, hyperkinesia, postural instability, and tremor

The answer is C. Damage to the basal ganglia is implicated in Parkinson disease; the four cardinal features of Parkinson disease are rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, and tremor.

A PTA tests a patient’s ability to move the eye medially during cranial nerve testing. Which cranial nerve is the therapist testing?

A. Abducens nerve

B. Optic nerve

C. Oculomotor nerve

D. Trochlear nerve

The answer is C. The oculomotor nerve (CN III) is responsible for up, down, and medial eye movements. The oculomotor nerve is also responsible for pupillary constriction.

A 68-year-old woman presents to the emergency room (ER) with signs and symptoms of a CVA. She has complaints of a left frontal headache and right foot drag. Muscle tone and reflexes were slightly hyperreflexive upon testing. She has a history of hypertension (HTN) and diabetes. Which is the MOST likely location of the lesion?

A. L Middle cerebral artery

B. L Anterior cerebral artery

C. R Anterior cerebral artery

D. R Middle cerebral artery

The answer is B. The left anterior cerebral artery is the most likely location of the lesion based on area of headache (left) and the contralateral hemiparesis involving the right lower extremity. The middle cerebral artery provides circulation to the area of the brain controlling contralateral upper extremity motor function, and the anterior cerebral artery provides circulation ...

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