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Which of the following conditions results from a weak esophageal sphincter that allows the stomach contents to go back into the esophagus?

A. Irritable esophageal syndrome (IES)

B. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

C. Esophageal achalasia

D. Diverticulosis

The answer is B. GERD occurs when there is a backup (reflux) of stomach contents into the esophagus due to a weak esophageal sphincter.

Which is the most common symptom of GERD due to the reflux of stomach acid and contents into the esophagus?

A. Chest pain

B. Abdominal pain

C. Heartburn

D. Dysphagia

The answer is C. Heartburn is caused by the backup of digestive acids and content into the esophagus.

Which is the cause for the occurrence of esophageal achalasia?

A. Inability of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax

B. Development of sacs in the lining of the esophagus

C. Inflammation of the esophageal walls

D. Abnormal distention of the esophageal tract

The answer is A. In esophageal achalasia, the lower sphincter of the esophagus is unable to relax properly, causing a functional obstruction in the esophagus.

Which of the following is a medical condition resulting from inflammation and infection in the weakened areas of the esophageal lining?

A. Diverticulosis

B. Esophageal peritonitis

C. Diverticulitis

D. Gastroesophageal reflux disease

The answer is C. Diverticulitis is the inflammation and infection of perforations in the diverticula.

Which of the following positive signs may be indicative of appendicitis?

A. Lhermitte sign

B. Iliopsoas sign

C. McBurney sign

D. Thomas test

The answer is C. A positive McBurney test (tenderness to palpation of the McBurney point) may indicate appendicitis.

Which of the following term indicates fatty stools, which could be due to decreased ...

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