1. Adams MA and Hutton WC: The effect of posture
on the fluid content of lumbar intervertebral discs, Spine 8:665,
2. Alexander MJL: Biomechanical aspects of lumbar spine injuries
in athletes: a review, Can J Applied Sport Sci 10:1, 1985.
3. Ali RM, Green DW, and Patel TC
: Scheuermann’s kyphosis,
Curr Opin Pediatr 11:70, 1999.
4. Allread WG, Marras WS, and Parnianpour M: Trunk kinematics
of one-handed lifting, and the effects of asymmetry and load weight,
Ergonomics 39:322, 1996.
5. An HS, Jenis LG, and Vaccaro AR: Adult spine trauma. In Orthopaedic
knowledge update six, Beaty JH and Rosemont IL (eds), American Academy
of Orthopaedic Surgeons 1999:653.
6. Andersson GBJ: Epidemiology of low back pain, Acta Orthop
Scand 69 (Suppl 281):28, 1998.
7. Arriaza BT: Spondylolysis in prehistoric human remains from
Guam and its possible etiology, Am J Phys Anthropol 104:393, 1997.
8. Ashton-Miller JA: Thoracic hyperkyphosis in the young athlete:
a review of the biomechanical issues, Curr Sports Med Rep 3:47,
9. Ashton-Miller JA and Schultz AB: Biomechanics of the human
spine and trunk, Exerc Sport Sci Rev 16:169, 1988.
10. Axler CT and McGill SM: Low back loads over a variety of
abdominal exercises: searching for the safest abdominal challenge,
Med Sci Sports Exerc 29:804, 1997.
11. Bartelink DL: The role of abdominal pressure in relieving
the pressure on the lumbar intervertebral discs, J Bone Joint Surg
12. Berlemann U, Jeszensky DJ, Buhler DW, and Harms J: The role
of lordosis, vertebral end-plate inclination, disc height, and facet
orientation in degenerative spondylolisthesis, J Spinal Disord 12:68,
13. Boden BP, Lin W, Young, M, and Mueller FO: Catastrophic
injuries in wrestlers, Am J Sports Med 11:17, 2001.
14. Boden BP and Prior C: Catastrophic spine injuries in sports,
Curr Sports Med Rep 4: 45, 2005.
15. Bogduk N and Mercer S: Biomechanics of the cervical spine.
I. Normal kinematics, Clin Biomech 15:633, 2000.
16. Bono G et al: Whiplash injuries: clinical picture and diagnostic
workup, Clin Exp Rheumatol 18:S23, 2000.
17. Brault JR, Siegmund GP, and Wheeler JB: Cervical muscle
response during whiplash: evidence of a lengthening muscle contraction,
Clin Biomech 15:426, 2000.
18. Brennan GP et al: Physical characteristics of patients with
herniated intervertebral lumbar discs, Spine 12:699, 1987.
19. Burton AK: Low back pain in children and adolescents: to
treat or not? Bull Hosp Jt Dis 55:127, 1996.
20. Byun HS, Cantos EL, and Patel PP: Severe cervical injury
due to break dancing: a case report, Orthopedics 9:550, 1986.
21. Cailliet R: Low back pain syndrome (3rd
ed), Philadelphia, 1981, FA Davis.
22. Carpenter DM and Nelson BW: Low back strengthening for the
prevention and treatment of low back pain, Med Sci Sports Exerc
23. Cheng JC, Tang SP, Guo X, Chan CW, and Qin L: Osteopenia
in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a histomorphometric study, Spine
24. Cherkin DC et al: An international comparison of back surgery
rates, Spine 19:1201, 1994.
25. Cheung JT-M, Zhang M, and Chow DH-K: Biomechanical responses
of the intervertebral joints to static and vibrational loading:
a finite element study, Clin Biomech 18:790, 2003.
26. Cholewicki J, Juluru K, and McGill SM: Intra-abdominal pressure
mechanism for stabilizing the lumbar spine, J Biomech 32:13, 1999.
27. Cholewicki J and McGill SM: Mechanical stability of the
in vivo lumbar spine: implications for injury and chronic low back
pain, Clin Biomech 11:1, 1996.
28. Cusick JF, Pintar FA, and Yoganandan N: Whiplash syndrome:
kinematic factors influencing pain patterns, Spine 26:1252, 2001.
29. Davis H: Increasing rates of cervical and lumbar surgery
in the United States, Spine 19:1117, 1994.
30. Davis KG and Marras WS: The effects of motion on trunk biomechanics,
Clin Biomech 15:703, 2000.
31. DiMeglio A, Bonnel F: La rachis en croissance, Paris, 1990,
32. Dolan P and Adams MA: Recent advances in lumbar spinal mechanics
and their significance for modelling, Clin Biomech 16:S8, 2001.
33. Dolan P and Adams MA: Repetitive lifting tasks fatigue the
back muscles and increase the bending moment acting on the lumbar
spine, J Biomech 31:713, 1998.
34. Dolan P, Benjamin E, and Adams M: Diurnal changes in bending
and compressive stresses acting on the lumbar spine, J Bone JT Surg
(Suppl) 75B:22, 1993.
35. Dreyer SJ and Dreyfuss PH: Low back pain and the zygapophysial
(facet) joints, Arch Phys Med Rehabil 77:290, 1996.
36. Drury CG et al: Symmetric and asymmetric manual materials
handling. Part 2: Biomechanics, Ergonomics 32:565, 1989.
37. Duggleby T and Kumar S: Epidemiology of juvenile low back
pain: a review, Disabil Rehabil 19:505, 1997.
38. Ebenbichler GR, Oddsson LIE, Kollmitzer J, and Erim Z: Sensory-motor
control of the lower back: implications for rehabilitation, Med
Sci Sports Exerc 33:1889, 2001.
39. Eck JC, Hodges SD, and Humphreys SC: Whiplash: a review
of a commonly misunderstood injury, Am J Med 110:651, 2001.
40. Farfan H: Mechanical disorders of
the low back, Philadelphia, 1973, Lea & Febiger.
41. Fogelholm RR and Alho AV: Smoking and intervertebral disc
degeneration, Med Hypotheses 56:537, 2001.
42. Frymoyer JW and Pope M: The role of trauma in low back pain:
a review, J Trauma 18:628, 1978.
43. Gardner-Morse MG and Stokes IAF: Trunk stiffness increases
with steady-state effort, J Biomech 34:457, 2001.
44. Garg A and Herrin G: Stoop or squat: a biomechanical and
metabolic evaluation, Am Inst Ind Eng Trans 11:293, 1979.
45. Goh S, Price RI, Leedman PJ, and Singer KP: The relative
influence of vertebral body and intervertebral disc shape on thoracic
kyphosis, Clin Biomech 14:439, 1999.
46. Granata KP and Orishimo KF: Response of trunk muscle coactivation
to changes in spinal stability, J Biomech 34:1117, 2001.
47. Gupta A: Analyses of myoelectrical silence of erectors spinae,
J Biomech 34:491, 2001.
48. Hall, SJ: Effect of attempted lifting speed on forces and
torque exerted on the lumbar spine, Med Sci Sports Exerc 17:440,
49. Hall SJ: Mechanical contribution to lumbar stress injuries
in female gymnasts, Med Sci Sports Exerc 18:599, 1986.
50. Hall SJ, Kent JA, and Dickinson, VR: Comparative assessment
of novel sailing trapeze harness designs. Int J Sport Biomech 5:289,
51. Hawes MC: The use of exercises in the treatment of scoliosis:
an evidence-based critical review of the literature, Pediatr Rehabil
52. Heliovaara M: Body height, obesity, and risk of herniated
lumbar intervertebral disc, Spine 12:469, 1987.
53. Hirsch C and Nachemson A: A new observation on the mechanical
behavior of lumbar discs, Acta Orthop Scand 23:254, 1954.
54. Hodges PW, Cresswell AG, Daggfeldt K, and Thorstensson A:
In vivo measurement of the effect of intra-abdominal pressure on
the human spine, J Biomech 34:347, 2001.
55. Holodny AI, Kisza PS, Contractor S, and Liu WC: Does a herniated
nucleus pulposus contribute significantly to a decrease in height
of the intervertebral disc? Quantitative volumetric MRI, Neuroradiology
56. Hsiang SM and McGorry: Three different lifting strategies
for controlling the motion patterns of the external load, Ergonomics
57. Hutton WC, Stott JRR, and Cyron BM: Is spondylolysis a fatigue
fracture? Spine 2:202, 1977.
58. Iencean SM: Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation following
experimental intradiscal pressure increase, Acta Neurochir 142:669,
59. Johnson S, Halliwell M, Jones M, and McNally D: Visualisation
fibre bundles in the intact intervertebral disc, J Biomech
60. Kaneoka K, Ono K, Inami S, and Hayashi K: Motion analysis
of cervical vertebrae during whiplash loading, Spine 15:763, 1999.
61. Keene JS: Thoracolumbar fractures in winter sports, Clin
Orthop 216:39, 1987.
62. Kelsey JL et al: Acute prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc:
an epidemio-logical study with special reference to driving automobiles
and cigarette smoking, Spine 9:608, 1984.
63. Kelsey JL et al: An epidemiological study of acute prolapsed
cervical intervertebral disc, J Bone Joint Surg 66A:907, 1984.
64. Kraemer J, Kolditz D, and Gowin R: Water and electrolyte
content of human intervertebral discs under variable load, Spine
65. Kujala UM, Taimela S, Erkintalo M, et al.: Low back pain
in adolescent athletes, Med Sci Sports Exerc 28:165, 1996.
66. Kuwashima A, Aizawa Y, Nakamura K, Taniguchi S, and Watanabe
M: National survey on accidental low back pain in workplace, Ind
Health 35:187, 1997.
67. Lindh M: Biomechanics of the lumbar spine. In Nordin M and
Frankel VH: Basic biomechanics of the musculoskeletal
system, Philadelphia, 1989, Lea & Febiger.
68. Macintosh JE and Bogduk N: The morphology of the lumbar
erector spinae, Spine 12:658, 1987.
69. Macnab I and McCulloch J: Backache (2nd
ed), Baltimore, 1990, Williams & Wilkins.
70. Magora A: Investigation of the relationship between low
back pain and occupation, Indust Med 41:5, 1972.
71. McGill SM: Estimation of force and extensor moment contributions
of the disc and ligaments at L4/L5, Spine 13:1395, 1988.
72. McGill SM: Low back stability: From formal description to
issues for performance and rehabilitation, Exerc and Sport Sciences
Rev 29:26, 2001.
73. McGill SM: A myoelectrically based dynamic three-dimensional
model to predict loads on lumbar spine tissues during lateral bending,
J Biomech 25:395, 1992.
74. McGill SM, Hughson RL, and Parks K: Changes in lumbar lordosis
modify the role of the extensor muscles, Clin Biomech 15:777, 2000.
75. McGill SM and Norman RW: Low back biomechanics in industry:
the prevention of injury through safer lifting. In Grabiner MD: Current issues in biomechanics, Champaign,
IL, 1993, Human Kinetics.
76. Mital A and Kromodihardjo S: Kinetic analysis of manual
lifting activities. Part II: Biomechanical analysis of task variables,
Int J Ind Ergonomics 1:91, 1986.
77. Mutoh Y et al: The relation between sit-up exercises and
the occurrence of low back pain. In Matsui H and Kobayashi K, eds: Biomechanics VIII-A, Champaign, IL,
1983, Human Kinetics.
78. Nachemson A, Andersson GBJ, and Schultz AB: Valsalva manoeuvre
biomechanics: effects on lumbar trunk loads of elevated intra-abdominal
pressure, Spine 11:476, 1986.
79. Nadler SF, Wu KD, Galski T, and Feinberg JH: Low back pain
in college athletes. A prospective study correlating lower extremity
overuse or acquired ligamentous laxity with low back pain, Spine
80. Neal C: The assessment of knowledge and application of proper
body mechanics in the workspace, Orthop Nurs 16:66, 1997.
81. Newcomer K and Sinaki M: Low back pain and its relationship
to back strength and physical activity in children, Acta Paediatr
82. Nixon J: Intervertebral disc mechanics: a review, J World
Soc Med 79:100, 1986.
83. Nolan JP and Sherk HH: Biomechanical evaluation of the extensor
musculature of the cervical spine, Spine 13:9, 1988.
84. Nourbakhsh MR, Moussavi SJ, and Salavati M: Effects of lifestyle
and work-related physical activity on the degree of lumbar lordosis
and chronic low back pain in a Middle East population, J Spinal
Disord 14:283, 2001.
85. Olson MW, Li L, and Solomonow M: Flexion-relaxation response
to cyclic lumbar flexion, Clin Biomech 19:769, 2004.
86. Omey ML, Micheli LJ, and Gerbino PG 2nd: Idiopathic scoliosis
and spondylolysis in the female athlete. Tips for treatment, Clin
Orthop 372:74, 2000.
87. Panjabi MM, Pearson AM, Ito S, Ivancic PC, and Wang J-L:
Cervical spine curvature during simulated whiplash, Clin Biomech
88. Parkinson RJ, Beach TAC
, and Callaghan JP: The time-varying
response of the in vivo lumbar spine to dynamic repetitive flexion,
Clin Biomech 19:330, 2004.
89. Pearce JM: Headaches in the whiplash syndrome, Spinal Cord
90. Polga DJ, Beaubien BP, Kallemeier PM, Schellhas KP, Lew
WD, Buttermann GR, and Wood KB: Measurement of in vivo intradiscal
pressure in healthy thoracic intervertebral discs, Spine 29:1320,
91. Pope M: Has spine research met the needs? J Biomech 34:S1,
92. Pope MH, Frymoyer JW, and Lehman TR: Structure and function
of the lumbar spine. In Pope MH et al, eds: Occupational
low back pain: assessment, treatment and prevention, St Louis,
1991, Mosby Year Book.
93. Potvin JR, McGill SM, and Norman RW: Trunk muscle and lumbar
ligament contributions to dynamic lifts with varying degrees of
trunk flexion, Spine 16:1099, 1991.
94. Reamy BV and Slakey JB: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis:
review and current concepts, Am Fam Physician 64:111, 2001.
95. Reilly T, Tynell A, and Troup JDG: Circadian variation in
human stature, Chronobiology Int 1:121, 1984.
96. Rovere GD: Low back pain in athletes, Physician Sportsmed
97. Savage RA, Whitehouse GH, and Roberts N: The relationship
between magnetic resonance imaging appearance of the lumbar spine
and low back pain, age and occupation in males, Eur Spine 6:106,
98. Schultz AB: Biomechanical analyses of loads on the lumbar
spine. In Weinstein JN and Wiesel SW, eds: The
lumbar spine, Philadelphia, 1990, WB Saunders.
99. Shirazi-Adl A and Parnianpour M: Effect of changes in lordosis
on mechanics of the lumbar spine-lumbar curve fitting, J Spinal
Disord 12:436, 1999.
DD, and Godfrey JJ: Injuries of the spine
sustained during gymnastic activities, Br Med J 293:861, 1986.
103. Snijders CJ, Hermans PFG, Niesing R, Spoor CW, and Stoeckart
R: The influence of slouching and lumbar support on iliolumbar ligaments,
intervertebral discs and sacroiliac joints, Clin Biomech 19:323,
104. Snook S, Fine L, and Silverstein B: Musculoskeletal disorders.
In Levy B and Wegman D, eds: Occupational
health: recognizing and preventing work-related disease, Boston,
1988, Little, Brown.
105. Spengler D et al: Back injury in industry: a retrospective
study, Spine 11:241, 1986.
106. Stemper BD, Yoganandan N, and Pintar FA: Gender dependent
cervical spine segmental kinematics during whiplash, J Biomech 36:1281,
107. Stemper BD, Yoganandan N, and Pintar FA: Kinetics of the
head-neck complex in low-speed rear impact, Biomed Sci Instrum 39:245,
108. Stokes IA and Aronsson DD: Disc and vertebral wedging in
patients with progressive scoliosis, J Spinal Disord 14:317, 2001.
109. Suissa S, Harder S, and Veilleux M: The relation between
initial symptoms and signs and the prognosis of whiplash, Eur Spine
J 10:44, 2001.
110. Sward L, Hellstrom M, Jacobsson B, and Peterson L: Back
pain and radiologic changes in the thoraco lumbar spine of athletes,
Spine 15:24, 1990.
111. Tall RL and DeVault W: Spinal injury in sport: epidemiologic
considerations, Clin Sports Med 12:441, 1993.
112. Torg JS, Guille JT, and Jaffe S: Current concepts review:
injuries to the cervical spine in American football players, J Bone
Joint Surg Am 84:112, 2002.
113. van Deursen LL, van Deursen DL, Snijders CJ, and Wilke
HJ: Relationship between everyday activities and spinal shrinkage,
Clin Biomech 20:547, 2005.
114. van Dieën JH, Kingma I, and van der Bug JCE: Evidence
for a role of antagonistic cocontraction in controlling trunk stiffness
during lifting, J Biomech 36: 1829, 2003.
115. Voutsinas SA and MacEwan GD: Sagittal profiles of the spine,
Clin Orthop 210:235, 1986.
116. Walsh AJL and Lotz JC: Biological response of the intervertebral
disc to dynamic loading, J Biomech 37:329, 2004.
117. White AA and Panjabi MM: Clinical
biomechanics of the spine, Philadelphia, 1978, JB Lippincott.
118. Wiesel SW, Bernini P, and Rothman RH: The
aging lumbar spine, Philadelphia, 1982, WB Saunders.
119. Wilder DG, Krag MH, and Pope MH: Atlas of mammalian lumbar
vertebrae—pictorial and dimensional information, Springfield,
IL, 1991, Charles C Thomas.
120. Wojtys EM, Ashton-Miller JA, Huston L, and Moga P: The
association between athletic training time and the sagittal curvature
of the immature spine, Am J Sports Med 28:490, 2000.
121. Yamamoto S: A new trend in the study of low back pain in
workplaces, Ind Health 35:173, 1997.
122. Yildiran KA, Senkoylu A, and Korkusuz F: Soccer causes
degenerative changes in the cervical spine, Eur Spine J 13:76, 2004.