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Figure B.1

Range of elbow joint motion: flexion–extension and hyperextension.

Figure B.2

Range of forearm motion: pronation and supination.

Figure B.3

Range of wrist joint movement: (a) flexion–extension and hyperextension; (b) radial and ulnar flexion.

Figure B.4

Range of arm movement on trunk (involving both shoulder joint and shoulder girdle): (a) abduction and adduction; (b) flexion and hyperextension; (c) horizontal adduction and abduction.

Figure B.5

Range of arm movement on trunk (involving both shoulder joint and shoulder girdle): (a) rotation with arm at side; (b) rotation with arm in abduction; (c) internal rotation posteriorly.

Figure B.6

Range of shoulder joint (glenohumeral) motion: (a) starting position; (b) abduction; (c) sideward-upward elevation of arm (combining abduction of arm and upward rotation of scapula).

Figure B.7

Range of hip joint flexion: (a) starting position; (b) maximal flexion without rotating pelvis.

Figure B.9

Range of knee joint motion: flexion–extension and hyperextension.

Figure B.10

Range of ankle joint dorsiflexion and plantar flexion with knee in flexed position.

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