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These exercises and techniques, intended as laboratory material for the student, are presented for analysis (major joint and muscle action) of movements. Many are commonly used to develop strength, increase flexibility, and improve posture. In most instances they are organized according to the major body segments (the upper and lower extremities and the trunk–head–neck). Many of the exercises are illustrated by three views: (1) the starting position, (2) the movement, and (3) the return to the starting position. The various exercises were selected on the basis of their use in (1) physical fitness and posture programs, (2) conditioning programs for improving athletic performance, and (3) tests for assessing strength and muscular endurance. The sports and gymnastics techniques are representative of movements involving the imparting of motion to one’s own body and to external objects. The exercises are organized in the following series:

  • Series 1 Weight-Training Exercises (barbells and weights)
  • Series 2 Isometric Tension Exercises (singly and with partners)
  • Series 3 Flexibility Exercises
  • Series 4 Posture Exercises
  • Series 5 Selected Sports and Gymnastics Techniques

The exercises within each series are numbered consecutively in the following manner: The first exercise in Series 1 is numbered 1.1, the second, 1.2. The first exercise in Series 2 is numbered 2.1, followed by 2.2, and so on in similar fashion.

Exercise 2.3

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