These exercises and techniques, intended as laboratory material
for the student, are presented for analysis (major joint and muscle
action) of movements. Many are commonly used to develop strength,
increase ﬂexibility, and improve posture. In most instances
they are organized according to the major body segments (the upper
and lower extremities and the trunk–head–neck).
Many of the exercises are illustrated by three views: (1) the starting
position, (2) the movement, and (3) the return to the starting position.
The various exercises were selected on the basis of their use in
(1) physical ﬁtness and posture programs, (2) conditioning
programs for improving athletic performance, and (3) tests for assessing
strength and muscular endurance. The sports and gymnastics techniques
are representative of movements involving the imparting of motion
to one’s own body and to external objects. The exercises
are organized in the following series: