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At the completion of this chapter, the reader will be able to:

  1. Understand the importance of differential diagnosis.

  2. Recognize some of the signs and symptoms that indicate the presence of a serious pathology.

  3. Discuss the concept of malingering.

  4. Describe why certain signs and symptoms (red flags) require medical referral.

  5. Describe the various infective diseases and inflammatory disorders that the orthopaedic clinician may encounter

  6. Describe the various neoplastic and metabolic diseases that can impact the orthopaedic patient.

  7. Discuss the differences between fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome.

  8. List the various systemic or medical pathologies that can mimic musculoskeletal pathology in various body regions.