The swing period begins as the foot is lifted from the ground and ends with initial contact with the ipsilateral foot.
The four intervals of the swing period include preswing, initial swing, midswing, and terminal swing.
Normal cadence is considered to be between 90 and 120 steps per minute.
Stability of the weight-bearing foot throughout the stance period, foot clearance of the non-weight-bearing foot in swing, appropriate prepositioning of the foot for initial contact, and adequate step length.
The lower crossed syndrome has the following characteristics: the erector spinae and iliopsoas are adaptively shortened (tight), the abdominals and gluteus maximus are weak, there is an anterior pelvic tilt, an increased lumbar lordosis, and a slight flexion of the hip. The hamstrings are frequently shortened in this syndrome.
Any five of the following: age, strength and flexibility imbalances, psychological aspects, evolutionary and hereditary influences, structural deformities, disease, pregnancy, habit, or pain.
Postural muscles—Relatively strong muscles that are likely to be poorly recruited, lax in appearance, show an inability to perform inner range contractions over time, or provide a stable base for other muscles to work from.
Phasic muscles—These muscles tend to become relatively weak compared to the postural muscles and are more prone to atrophy and adaptive shortening and show preferential recruitment in synergistic activities. In addition, these muscles will tend to dominate ...