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  1. Primary injuries can be self-inflicted, caused by another individual or entity, or caused by the environment. Secondary injuries are essentially the inflammatory response that occurs with the primary injury.

  2. Microtraumatic injuries occur as a result of a cumulative repetitive overload, incorrect mechanics, and/or frictional resistance. Macrotraumatic injuries occur with a sudden overloading of the musculoskeletal tissues.

  3. (1) Coagulation and inflammation stage. (2) Migratory and proliferative stage. (3) Remodeling stage.

  4. Neutrophils are white blood cells of the polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte subgroup that appear during the inflammation stage. Neutrophils are filled with granules of toxic chemicals (phagocytes) that enable them to bind to microorganisms, internalize them, and kill them.

  5. Monocytes are white blood cells of the mononuclear leukocyte subgroup. The monocytes migrate into tissues and develop into macrophages, and provide immunological defenses against many infectious organisms.

  1. E

  2. A

  3. A

  4. A

  5. C

  1. Empathy is the ability to see another person's viewpoint so that a deep and true understanding of what the person is experiencing can be made.

  2. An examination refers to the gathering of data and information concerning a topic. An evaluation refers to the making of a value judgment based on the collected data and information.

  3. The history, systems review, and tests and measures.

  4. Neutral questions are structured in such a way so as to avoid leading the patient into giving a particular response.

  5. To identify possible health problems that require consultation with, or referral to, another health-care provider.

  1. Viscerogenic, vasculogenic, neurogenic, psychogenic, and spondylogenic.

  2. The intentional production of false symptoms or the exaggeration of symptoms that truly exist.

  3. False.

  4. L4–L5.

  5. Migraine.

  1. The swing period begins as the foot is lifted from the ground and ends with initial contact with the ipsilateral foot.

  2. The four intervals of the swing period include preswing, initial swing, midswing, and terminal swing.

  3. Normal cadence is considered to be between 90 and 120 steps per minute.

  4. False.

  5. Stability of the weight-bearing foot throughout the stance period, foot clearance of the non-weight-bearing foot in swing, appropriate prepositioning of the foot for initial contact, and adequate step length.

  6. The lower crossed syndrome has the following characteristics: the erector spinae and iliopsoas are adaptively shortened (tight), the abdominals and gluteus maximus are weak, there is an anterior pelvic tilt, an increased lumbar lordosis, and a slight flexion of the hip. The hamstrings are frequently shortened in this syndrome.

  7. Any five of the following: age, strength and flexibility imbalances, psychological aspects, evolutionary and hereditary influences, structural deformities, disease, pregnancy, habit, or pain.

  8. Postural muscles—Relatively strong muscles that are likely to be poorly recruited, lax in appearance, show an inability to perform inner range contractions over time, or provide a stable base for other muscles to work from.

    Phasic muscles—These muscles tend to become relatively weak compared to the postural muscles and are more prone to atrophy and adaptive shortening and show preferential recruitment in synergistic activities. In addition, these muscles will tend to dominate ...

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