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The physical therapist has a number of adjunctive interventions at his or her disposal, the use of which is determined by the goals of the intervention (Tables 18–1 and 18–2). Three categories of adjunctive interventions are recognized:

  • Physical agents
  • Electrotherapeutic modalities
  • Mechanical modalities

Table 18–1. Indications and Contraindications for the Use of Therapeutic Modalities
Table 18–2. Clinical Decision Making on the Use of Various Therapeutic Modalities during the Various Stages of Healing

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