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  • Autism
  • Pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)

  • 299 Pervasive developmental disorders
  • 299.0 Autistic disorder
  • 299.00 Autistic disorder current or active state
  • 299.01 Autistic disorder residual state
  • 299.9 Unspecified pervasive developmental disorder
  • 299.90 Unspecified pervasive developmental disorder current or active state
  • 299.91 Unspecified pervasive developmental disorder residual state

  • F84.0 Autistic disorder
  • F84.9 Pervasive developmental disorder unspecified
  • F84.5 Asperger’s syndrome
  • F84.8 Other pervasive developmental disorders
  • F84.9 Pervasive developmental disorder, unspecified


  • Group of disorders, including pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), autism, and Asperger’s syndrome, each characterized by a variety of features
    • Difficulty with socialization
    • Difficulty with communication
    • Stereotypical movements
    • Developmental delay

Essentials of Diagnosis

  • Deficits in socialization
  • Deficits in communication
  • Stereotypical or repetitive movements
    • Ritualistic behavior
    • Inflexible behavior, requires predictable routines
    • Self-stimulation behaviors, such as flapping arms or rocking
  • Atypical play or interest in toys or objects
    • Preoccupation with ordinary objects, such as door stop or ceiling fan
    • Obsessively arranges objects, such as blocks

General Considerations


  • 1 in 100 children
  • Males 3 to 4 times more likely than females
  • 2 to 8% greater risk if siblings also have ASD

Signs and Symptoms

  • Generally apparent by 18 months of age
  • One early signs is child’s inability to respond when his or her name is called
  • Parents may report infant “does not like them,” as child may not like being held
  • Developmental delay (e.g., walking)
  • Associated disorders

Functional Implications

  • Delayed developmental milestones, including
    • Communication
    • Social-emotional skills
    • Gross motor skills
    • Self-care
    • Cognitive
  • Lack of age-appropriate safety skills
  • Inability to live independently

Possible Contributing Causes

  • Primarily idiopathic
  • Possible causes include

Differential Diagnosis

  • Antidepressants, SSRIs (Zoloft or Prozac)
  • Anticonvulsants to control seizures (Tegretol, Lamictal, Depakote, or Topamax)
  • Risperdal
  • Antipsychotic medications (Zyprexa or Haldol)

Medical Procedures

  • To child psychiatrist for diagnosis and medication
  • To child neurologist for developmental progression
  • To geneticist to rule out other syndromes
  • To early intervention program
  • To speech therapist
  • To occupational therapist for functional activities
  • ...

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