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  • DCD
  • Clumsy child syndrome
  • Motor dyspraxia
  • Developmental dyspraxia
  • Sensory integrative dysfunction
  • Disorder of attention, motor and perception
  • Minor coordination dysfunction

  • 315.4 Developmental coordination disorder

  • F82 Specific developmental disorder of motor function

Description

  • Difficulty performing complex gross or fine-motor coordination tasks

Essentials of Diagnosis

  • No cognitive or neurological dysfunction

General Considerations

  • Four criteria
    • Difficulty performing age-appropriate motor skills
    • Child has had sufficient opportunity to attain motor skills
    • No medical reason for motor difficulty
    • Difficulties impact academics or ADLs

Demographics

Signs and Symptoms

  • Decreased strength
  • Difficulty with coordination
    • Ball skills
      • Catching
      • Throwing
      • Kicking
    • Single-limb stance
    • Jumping
    • Hopping on one foot
    • Skipping
  • Ligamentous laxity
  • Hypotonia5
  • Soft neurological signs6
  • Atypical gait pattern

Functional Implications

  • Falls or trips often
  • Bumps into objects, other people
  • Difficulty using motor skills in new settings

Possible Contributing Causes

  • Premature birth4

Differential Diagnosis

Diagnostic Procedures

  • Parent teacher questionnaires: Connors, Burks
  • Psychological testing
  • IQ testing
  • Developmental and psychosocial evaluation

Medication

  • None for DCD
  • Medications available for ADHD
    • Methylphenidate drugs
    • Amphetamines
    • Dexmethylphenidate
    • Dextroamphetamine
    • Lisdexamfetamine

  • School psychologist for behavior therapy
  • Neurologist
  • Occupational therapist
  • Speech therapist

  • Difficulty climbing stairs without holding railing
  • Poor abdominal strength
  • Inability to balance on one leg
  • Inability to hop on one foot
  • Inability to kick a rolling ball
  • Inability to catch a ball

  • Strengthening
  • Balance training
  • Coordination tasks
  • Sensory integration
  • Motor learning
  • Task-specific intervention

  • Patient will be able to
    • Complete 10 sit-ups with hands behind head within 3 months to increase abdominal strength
    • Stand on one leg independently for 5 seconds to improve balance
    • Jump with both feet off the floor in 6 months to increase quadricep strength, gluteal strength, coordination
    • Catch a medium-sized ball from 5 feet away with 75% accuracy in 6 months
    • Kick a rolling ball with 50% accuracy to ...

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