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  • Primary Sjögren’s (dry eyes and mouths only)
  • Secondary Sjögren’s (associated with other immune disorders)

  • 710.2 Sicca syndrome
  • PT diagnoses/treatment diagnoses that may be associated with immune disorders affecting movement
    • 315.4 Developmental coordination disorder
    • 718.07 Articular cartilage disorder, ankle and foot
    • 718.03 Articular cartilage disorder, forearm
    • 718.04 Articular cartilage disorder, hand
    • 718.45 Contracture of joint, pelvic region and thigh
    • 719.39 Palindromic rheumatism involving multiple sites
    • 719.4 Pain in joint
    • 728.2 Muscular wasting and disuse atrophy, not elsewhere classified
    • 729.9 Other and unspecified disorders of soft tissue
    • 729.1 Myalgia and myositis, unspecified
    • 729.9 Other disorders of soft tissue
    • 736.9 Acquired deformity of limb site unspecified
    • 780.7 Malaise and fatigue
    • 781.2 Abnormality of gait
    • 782.3 Edema
    • 786.0 Dyspnea and respiratory abnormalities
    • 786.05 Shortness of breath
    • 728.89 Other disorders of muscle, ligament, and fascia

  • M35.00 Sicca syndrome, unspecified
  • M35.01 Sicca syndrome with keratoconjunctivitis


  • Condition in which healthy tissue is mistaken by the body as foreign substances
  • Affects the exocrine glands
  • Limits production of body secretions
  • Multiple body system involvement
  • Onset often vague with misdiagnosis

Essentials of Diagnosis

  • Must be made by a physician and confirmed by medical diagnostic testing
  • History
  • Presence of markers
  • Dry eyes and mouth
  • Elimination of other diseases

General Considerations

  • Specific diagnosis may take time and require intensive medical diagnostic testing
  • May result in secondary problems such as
    • Aerobic capacity and muscle endurance impairment
    • Sarcopenia
    • Weakness/impaired muscle performance
    • Musculoskeletal problems
    • Neuromuscular problems
    • Weight loss, indicating the need for PT intervention depending on severity
  • Because Sjögren’s and other immune disorders frequently refer pain or are causative of pain in various body areas, individuals may get referred to PT inappropriately or appropriately; inappropriate referral may be such as when referred to the lower back or upper back or chest
  • History of heartburn or indigestion may be indicative of GI or cardiac problems or directly related to Sjögren’s


  • Females more likely than males
  • Adults > 40 years of age
  • Can affect individuals of all ages, but is rare in children
  • Some indication of genetic familial tendency
  • More likely if there is a systemic rheumatic disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis
  • Estimated 1 to 4 million in U.S.

Signs and Symptoms

  • The signs and symptoms indicated below may be characteristic of multiple immune systemic disorders, often confounding medical diagnosis
  • It is not the purview of a PT to medically diagnose an immune pathology but rather to recognize the possibility in the differential diagnosis process, especially when ...

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