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  • Scapulohumeral Rhythm

  • The Shoulder Girdle (Acromioclavicular and Sternoclavicular Articulations)

    Structure of Acromioclavicular Articulation

    Structure of Sternoclavicular Articulation


  • Muscles of the Shoulder Girdle


    Characteristics and Functions of Shoulder Girdle Muscles

  • The Shoulder Joint (Glenohumeral Articulation)


    Ligamentous and Muscular Reinforcements


  • Muscles of the Shoulder Joint


    Characteristics and Functions

  • Joint and Muscular Analysis of the Fundamental Movements of the Arm on the Trunk

    Movements in the Frontal Plane

    Movements in the Sagittal Plane

    Movements in the Horizontal Plane

    Diagonal Movements

    Shoulder Girdle Movements Not Involving the Arm

  • Common Injuries of the Shoulder Region

    Acromioclavicular Sprain

    Fracture of the Clavicle

    Dislocation of the Shoulder

    Rotator Cuff Tears

    Shoulder Impingement

  • Laboratory Experiences


At the conclusion of this chapter, the student should be able to:

  1. Name, locate, and describe the structure and ligamentous reinforcements of the articulations of the shoulder region.

  2. Name and demonstrate the movements possible in the joints of the shoulder region regardless of starting position.

  3. Name and locate the muscles and muscle groups of the shoulder region, and name their primary actions as agonists, stabilizers, neutralizers, or antagonists.

  4. Analyze the fundamental movements of the arm and trunk with respect to joint and muscle actions.

  5. Describe the common injuries of the shoulder region.

  6. Perform an anatomical analysis of the shoulder region in a motor skill.

Scapulohumeral Rhythm

Anatomical cooperation is beautifully illustrated in the movements of the arms on the trunk. The arm travels through a wide range of movements, and in each of these the scapula cooperates by placing the glenoid fossa in the most favorable position for the head of the humerus. This is known as scapulohumeral rhythm. When the arm is elevated sideward (abducted), for instance, the scapula rotates upward; when it is elevated forward (flexed), the scapula not only rotates upward but it tends to slide partially around the rib cage (abducted). Although occasionally movement of the scapula is deliberately repressed (as in some stylized dance movements, and in some exercises), in all natural movements, the scapula shares with the humerus in the movements of the arm on the trunk. In abduction of the arm, for instance, the movements of the scapula and humerus are continuous throughout the movement, with the humeral movement accounting for approximately two-thirds of the total movement and the scapular movement for one-third. It is important to remember, however, that this cooperative scapulohumeral rhythm is not a linear relationship. It varies with individuals and with the phase of the movement. Scapulohumeral rhythm may vary across age groups and with certain types of activity, including throwing. Load and speed of movement may also produce variations. In the normal adult, however, this cooperation is fairly predictable.

The upper extremity is suspended from the axial skeleton (head and trunk) by means of the shoulder girdle. The latter consists of the sternum and ...

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