Skip to Main Content

We have a new app!

Take the Access library with you wherever you go—easy access to books, videos, images, podcasts, personalized features, and more.

Download the Access App here: iOS and Android

Joint Range of Motion

Figure B.1

Range of elbow joint motion: flexion-extension and hyperextension.

Figure B.2

Range of forearm motion: pronation and supination.

Figure B.3

Range of wrist joint movement: (a) flexion-extension and hyperextension; (b) radial and ulnar flexion.

Figure B.4

Range of arm movement on trunk (involving both shoulder joint and shoulder girdle): (a) abduction and adduction; (b) flexion and hyperextension; (c) horizontal adduction and abduction.

Figure B.5

Range of arm movement on trunk (involving both shoulder joint and shoulder girdle): (a) rotation with arm at side; (b) rotation with arm in abduction; (c) internal rotation posteriorly.

Figure B.6

Range of shoulder joint (glenohumeral) motion: (a) starting position; (b) abduction; (c) sideward-upward elevation of arm (combining abduction of arm and upward rotation of scapula).

Figure B.7

Range of hip joint flexion: (a) starting position; (b) maximal flexion without rotating pelvis.

Figure B.8

Range of hip joint movement: (a) hyperextension; (b) inward and outward rotation; (c) abduction.

Figure B.9

Range of knee joint motion: flexion–extension and hyperextension.

Figure B.10

Range of ankle joint dorsiflexion and plantar flexion with knee in flexed position.

Figure B.11

Range of motion in the thoracic and lumbar spine: (a) hyperextension; (b) lateral flexion.

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.