## OBJECTIVES

By studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

1. Identify the sequence of steps in the procedures for evaluating cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).

2. Describe one maximal and one submaximal field test used to evaluate CRF.

3. Explain the rationale underlying the use of distance runs as estimates of CRF.

4. Identify the common measures taken during a graded exercise test (GXT).

5. Describe changes in the ECG that may take place during a GXT in subjects with ischemic heart disease.

6. Describe the primary and secondary criteria for having achieved $V˙O2$ max.

7. Estimate $V˙O2$ max from the last stage of a GXT and list the concerns about the protocol that may affect that estimate.

8. Estimate $V˙O2$ max by extrapolating the HR/$V˙O2$ relationship to the person’s age-predicted maximal HR.

9. Describe the problems with the assumptions made in the extrapolation procedure used in Objective 8, and name the environmental and subject variables that must be controlled to improve such estimates.

10. Identify the criteria used to terminate the GXT.

11. Explain why there are so many different GXT protocols and why the rate of progression through the test is important.

12. Describe the YMCA’s procedure to set the rate of progression on a cycle ergometer test.

13. Estimate $V˙O2$ max with the Åstrand and Ryhming nomogram given a data set for the cycle ergometer or step test.

## OUTLINE

• Testing Procedures 345

• Screening 345

• Resting and Exercise Measures 347

• Field Tests for Estimating CRF 348

• Maximal Run Tests 348

• Walk Tests 350

• Modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test 351

• Graded Exercise Tests: Measurements 351

• Heart Rate 352

• Blood Pressure 352

• ECG 352

• Rating of Perceived Exertion 352

• Termination Criteria 353

• $V˙O2$ Max 353

• Estimation of $V˙O2$ Max from Last Work Rate 354

• Estimation of $V˙O2$ Max from Submaximal HR Response 354

• Graded Exercise Test Protocols 356

• Cycle Ergometer 359

• Step Test 360

## KEY TERMS

angina pectoris

arrhythmia

conduction disturbances

double product

dyspnea

field test

myocardial ischemia

ST segment depression

## INTRODUCTION

In Chap. 14, we discussed the risk factors that limit health and contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD). One of those risk factors was a sedentary lifestyle. There is no question that by increasing our physical activity and cardiorespiratory function (fitness) (CRF), we can reduce the risk of many chronic diseases and death from all causes (110). You are already familiar with the use of a graded exercise test (GXT) to measure $V˙O2$ max; this chapter picks up on that theme and discusses the types of tests used to evaluate ...

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