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By studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

  1. Describe the incidence of amenorrhea in female athletes versus the general population.

  2. List those factors thought to contribute to “athletic” amenorrhea.

  3. Discuss the general recommendations for training during menstruation.

  4. List the general guidelines for exercise during pregnancy.

  5. Define the term female athlete triad.

  6. Discuss the possibility that chronic exercise presents a danger to (1) the cardiopulmonary system or (2) the musculoskeletal system of children.

  7. List those conditions in individuals with type 1 diabetes that might limit their participation in a vigorous training program.

  8. Explain the rationale for the selection of an insulin injection site for people with type 1 diabetes prior to a training session.

  9. List the precautions that people with asthma should take during a training session.

  10. Discuss the question “does exercise promote seizures in people with epilepsy?”

  11. Graph the change in muscle mass and muscular strength that occur with age.

  12. Discuss the factors that contribute to the age-related changes in muscle mass and muscular strength.

  13. Discuss the impact of aging on V˙O2 max in both men and women.

  14. Outline the factor(s) that are responsible for the age-related decline in endurance performance.


  • Factors Important to Women Involved in Vigorous Training 508

    • Exercise and Menstrual Disorders 508

    • Training and Menstruation 509

    • The Female Athlete and Eating Disorders 509

    • Eating Disorders: Final Comments 510

    • Bone Mineral Disorders and the Female Athlete 510

    • Exercise during Pregnancy 510

    • Risk of Knee Injury in Female Athletes 512

  • Sports Conditioning for Children 514

    • Training and the Cardiopulmonary System 514

    • Training and the Musculoskeletal System 514

    • Progress in Pediatric Exercise Science 515

  • Competitive Training for People with Diabetes 516

  • Training for People with Asthma 517

  • Epilepsy and Physical Training 517

    • Does Exercise Promote Seizures? 517

    • Risk of Injury Due to Seizures 518

  • Exercise Performance and Training for Masters Athletes 518

    • Age-Related Changes in Muscular Strength 518

    • Aging and Endurance Performance 519

    • Training Guidelines for Masters Athletes 521



anorexia nervosa

articular cartilage




female athlete triad

growth plate (epiphyseal plate)



The general physiological principles of exercise training to improve performance apply to anyone interested in improving athletic performance (see Chap. 21). However, when planning competitive training programs for special populations, several specific issues require individual consideration. For example, special training concerns exist for both the female athlete and children. Also, there are specific guidelines for the training of people with diabetes, asthma, or epilepsy. Finally, a growing number of masters athletes are competing in endurance events. How does aging affect their physiological capability and ability to train? This ...

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