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By studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

  1. Define nutrition and nutrients.

  2. Discuss the classes and functions of nutrients.

  3. Identify the two major classes of carbohydrates and explain the glycemic index.

  4. Explain why amino acids are classified into two categories labeled as nonessential and essential amino acids.

  5. List the three major classes of lipids and discuss the major functions of lipids in the body.

  6. Discuss the importance of water as a macronutrient.

  7. Define vitamins and explain the criteria for a compound to be classified as a vitamin.

  8. Identify the fat and water-soluble vitamins.

  9. Define and discuss the following terms: essential minerals, major minerals, and trace minerals.

  10. Describe what is meant by the terms Dietary Reference Intakes, Estimated Average Requirements, Recommended Dietary Allowance, Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Estimated Energy Requirement, Daily Value, and Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges.

  11. Explain the purpose of the nutritional facts panel on commercial food products.

  12. Identify the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges for carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

  13. Discuss the two classes of cholesterol in blood and explain the role that each class plays in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

  14. List and briefly explain the five major points contained in the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  15. Define body composition and discuss the two-compartment model of body composition.

  16. Explain the term Body Mass Index and discuss the pros and cons of using this method to assess overweight and obesity.

  17. List and briefly explain the principles behind the following methods of determining body composition: underwater weighing, displacement plethysmography, dual X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance, and sum of skinfolds. Further, identify which of these techniques have the highest and lowest standard error of estimate.

  18. Describe the range of percent body fat that is considered healthy for young adult (18–44 years) men and women.

  19. Discuss the energy balance equation. In your discussion, please identify the factors that make up the energy expenditure side of the equation.

  20. Identify the components of macronutrient energy storage. Further, please list and identify the functions of the three types of adipocytes.

  21. List and describe four popular diet plans (i.e., low carbohydrate diets, low fat diets, high protein diets, and nutritionally balanced diet plans).

  22. Discuss the evidence that the macronutrient content of the diet may not be the key to weight loss.

  23. Discuss the impact of low calorie diets on loss of fat free mass. Also, explain how combining exercise with a diet program can reduce the loss of fat free mass during a low calorie diet.

  24. List and discuss the five steps leading to healthy percent body fat.


Nutrition—The Science of Food

Classes and Functions of Nutrients


  • Carbohydrates

  • Proteins

  • Lipids (fats)

  • Water


  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

Nutritional Requirements and Dietary Guidelines

  • Estimated Average Requirements

  • Recommended Dietary

  • Allowance

  • Adequate Intakes

  • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

  • Estimated Energy Requirement

  • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

Nutrition Facts Panel on Food

Nutritional Recommendations for Intake of Macro- and Micronutrients

  • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

  • Recommendations ...

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