1. Prentice WE: Impaired mobility: restoring range of motion and improving flexibility. In: Voight ML, Hoogenboom BJ, Prentice WE, eds. Musculoskeletal Interventions: Techniques for Therapeutic Exercise. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2007:165–180.
2. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine: Flexibility. Chicago, IL: The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, 1988.
3. Gleim GW, McHugh MP: Flexibility and its effects on sports injury and performance. Sports Med
4. Kippers V, Parker AW: Toe-touch test: a measure of validity. Phys Ther
5. Jackson AW, Baker AA: The relationship of the sit and reach test to criterion measures of hamstring and back flexibility in young females. Res Q Exerc Sport 57:183–186, 1986.
6. Litsky AS, Spector M: Biomaterials. In: Simon SR, ed. Orthopaedic Basic Science. Chicago, IL: The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, 1994:447–486.
7. Johns R, Wright V: Relative importance of various tissues in joint stiffness. J Appl Physiol 17:824–830, 1962.
8. Toft E, Espersen GT, Kalund S, et al: Passive tension of the ankle before and after stretching. Am J Sports Med
9. Halbertsma JPK, Goeken LNH: Stretching exercises: effect of passive extensibility and stiffness in short hamstrings of healthy subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil
10. Magnusson SP, Simonsen EB, Aagaard P, et al: A mechanism for altered flexibility in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol
11. Klinge K, Magnusson SP, Simonsen EB, et al: The effect of strength and flexibility on skeletal muscle EMG activity, stiffness and viscoelastic stress relaxation response. Am J Sports Med
12. Lapier TK, Burton HW, Almon RF: Alterations in intramuscular connective tissue after limb casting affect contraction-induced muscle injury. J Appl Physiol
13. McNair PJ, Wood GA, Marshall RN: Stiffness of the hamstring muscles and its relationship to function in ACL deficient individuals. Clin Biomech 7:131–137, 1992.
14. McHugh MP, Magnusson SP, Gleim GW, et al: A cross-sectional study of age-related musculoskeletal and physiological changes in soccer players. Med Exerc Nutr Health 2:261–268, 1993.
15. Hutton RS: Neuromuscular basis of stretching exercise. In: Komi PV, ed. Strength and Power in Sports. Oxford: Blackwell Science Publications, 1993:29–38.
16. Lehmann JF, Masock AJ, Warren CG, et al: Effect of therapeutic temperatures on tendon extensibility. Arch Phys Med Rehabil
17. Kottke FJ, Pauley DL, Ptak RA: The rationale for prolonged stretching for correction of shortening of connective tissue. Arch Phys Med Rehabil
18. Zachazewski JE: Range of motion and flexibility. In: Magee D, Zachazewski JE, Quillen WS, eds. Scientific Foundations and Principles of Practice in Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation. St. Louis, MI: WB Saunders, 2007:527–556.
19. Anderson B, Burke ER: Scientific, medical, and practical aspects of stretching. Clin Sports Med
20. Wiktorsson-Moller M, Oberg B, Ekstrand J, et al: Effects of warming up, massage, and stretching on range of motion and muscle strength in the lower extremity. Am J Sports Med
21. Wallman HW: Stretching and flexibility. In: Wilmarth MA, ed. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy: Topic – Strength and Conditioning – Independent Study Course 15.3. La Crosse, WI: Orthopaedic Section, APTA, Inc., 2005.
22. Cornelius WL, Hagemann RW Jr, Jackson AW: A study on placement of stretching within a workout. J Sports Med Phys Fitness
23. Joynt RL: Therapeutic exercise. In: DeLisa JA, ed. Rehabilitation Medicine: Principles and Practice. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott, 1988:346–371.
24. Kottke FJ: Therapeutic exercise to maintain mobility. In: Kottke FJ, Stillwell GK, Lehman JF, eds. Krusen's Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Baltimore: WB Saunders, 1982:389–402.
25. Yoder E: Physical therapy management of nonsurgical hip problems in adults. In: Echternach JL, ed. Physical Therapy of the Hip. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, 1990:103–137.
26. Travell JG, Simons DG: Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction – The Trigger Point Manual. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1983.
27. Swezey RL: Arthrosis. In: Basmajian JV, Kirby RL, eds. Medical Rehabilitation. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984:216–218.
28. Nelson RT: A comparison of the immediate effects of eccentric training vs. static stretch on hamstring flexibility in high school and college athletes. N Am J Sports Phys Ther
29. Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, et al: The impact of stretching on sports injury risk: a systematic review of the literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc
30. Herbert RD, Gabriel M: Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: systematic review. Br Med J
31. Shrier I: Does stretching improve performance? A systematic and critical review of the literature. Clin J Sport Med
32. Murphy DR: A critical look at static stretching: are we doing our patient harm? Chiropract Sports Med 5:67–70, 1991.
33. Markos PD: Ipsilateral and contralateral effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques on hip motion and electromyographic activity. Phys Ther
34. Holt LE, Travis TM, Okita T: Comparative study of three stretching techniques. Percept Mot Skills
35. Tanigawa MC: Comparison of hold-relax procedure and passive mobilization on increasing muscle length. Phys Ther
36. Sady SP, Wortman MA, Blanke D: Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation? Arch Phys Med Rehabil
37. Prentice WE: A comparison of static stretching and PNF stretching for improving hip joint flexibility. J Athl Train 18:56–59, 1983.
38. Hartley-O'Brien SJ: Six mobilization exercises for active range of hip flexion. Res Q Exerc Sport 51:625–635, 1980.
39. Muir IW, Chesworth BM, Vandervoort AA: Effect of a static calf-stretching exercise on the resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion in healthy subjects. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 29:106-13; discussion 114–5, 1999.
40. DeVries HA: Evaluation of static stretching procedures for improvement of flexibility. Res Q 33:222–229, 1962.
41. Logan GA, Egstrom GH: Effects of slow and fast stretching on sacrofemoral angle. J Assoc Phys Ment Rehabil 15:85–89, 1961.
42. Davies CT, White MJ: Muscle weakness following eccentric work in man. Pflugers Arch
43. Friden J, Sjostrom M, Ekblom B: A morphological study of delayed muscle soreness. Experientia
44. Hardy L: Improving active range of hip flexion. Res Q Exerc Sport 56:111–114, 1985.
45. Starring DT, Gossman MR, Nicholson GG Jr, et al: Comparison of cyclic and sustained passive stretching using a mechanical device to increase resting length of hamstring muscles. Phys Ther
46. Depino GM, Webright WG, Arnold BL: Duration of maintained hamstring flexibility after cessation of an acute static stretching protocol. J Athl Train
47. Spernoga SG, Uhl TL, Arnold BL, et al: Duration of maintained hamstring flexibility after a one-time, modified hold-relax stretching protocol. J Athl Train
48. Bandy WD, Irion JM, Briggler M: The effect of time and frequency of static stretching on flexibility of the hamstring muscles. Phys Ther
49. Roberts JM, Wilson K: Effect of stretching duration on active and passive range of motion in the lower extremity. Br J Sports Med
50. Taylor DC, Dalton JD Jr, Seaber AV, et al: Viscoelastic properties of muscle-tendon units. The biomechanical effects of stretching. Am J Sports Med
51. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30:975–991, 1998.
52. Kisner C, Colby LA: Range of motion. In: Kisner C, Colby LA, eds. Therapeutic Exercise. Foundations and Techniques, 5th edn. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis, 2002:43–64.
53. Johnson DP: The effect of continuous passive motion on wound-healing and joint mobility after knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am 72A:421–426, 1990.
54. Basso M, Knapp L: Comparison of two continuous passive motion protocols for patients with total knee implants. Phys Ther
55. Colwell CW, Morris BA: The influence of continuous passive motion on the results of total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop
56. Coutts RD: Continuous passive motion in the rehabilitation of the total knee patient. It's role and effect. Orthop Rev 15:27, 1986.
57. Coutts RD, Toth C, Kaita JH: The Role of continuous passive motion in the postoperative rehabilitation of the total knee patient. In: Hungerford DS, ed. Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Comprehensive Approach. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Williams, 1984:126–132.
58. Jordan LR, Siegel JL, Olivo JL: Early flexion routine, an alternative method of continuous passive motion. Clin Orthop
59. Maloney WJ, Schurman DJ, Hangen D, et al: The influence of continuous passive motion on outcome in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop
60. Vince KG, Kelly MA, Beck J, et al: Continuous passive motion after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty
61. Wasilewski SA, Woods LC, Torgerson WR Jr, et al: Value of continuous passive motion in total knee arthroplasty. Orthopedics
62. Walker RH, Morris BA, Angulo DL, et al: Postoperative use of continuous passive motion, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and continuous cooling pad following total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty
63. McInnes J, Larson MG, Daltroy LH, et al: A controlled evaluation of continuous passive motion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. JAMA