Sections View Full Chapter Figures Tables Videos Annotate Full Chapter Figures Tables Videos Supplementary Content ++ Lobar pneumoniaBronchial pneumoniaAcute interstitial pneumoniaPneumonitisLung inflammation ++ 480 Viral pneumonia481 Pneumococcal pneumonia [streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia]482 Other bacterial pneumonia483 Pneumonia due to other specified organism484 Pneumonia in infectious diseases classified elsewhere485 Bronchopneumonia, organism unspecified486 Pneumonia, organism unspecified ++ J12.0 Adenoviral pneumoniaJ12.1 Respiratory syncytial virus pneumoniaJ12.2 Parainfluenza virus pneumoniaJ12.81 Pneumonia due to SARS-associated coronavirusJ12.89 Other viral pneumoniaJ12.9 Viral pneumonia, unspecifiedJ13 Pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniaeJ15.0 Pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniaeJ18.1 Lobar pneumonia, unspecified organism ++ 780.7 Malaise and fatigue786.0 Dyspnea and respiratory abnormalities786.05 Shortness of breath ++ 6C: Impaired Ventilation, Respiration/Gas Exchange, and Aerobic Capacity/Endurance Associated With Airway Clearance Dysfunction6F: Impaired Ventilation and Respiration/Gas Exchange Associated With Respiratory Failure +++ Description ++ Inflammation of the lungs (specifically the alveoli)Infection can be bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasiticPneumonitis is lung inflammationPneumonia is pneumonitis with pulmonary consolidation +++ Essentials of Diagnosis ++ Can develop from bronchitis, which is usually after a common cold (viral respiratory infection)Case with mild symptoms is called walking pneumonia +++ General Considerations ++ Influenza is a systemic illness involving the respiratory tractAntibiotics have limited to no role in the treatment of a virusIf caused by bacteria, antibiotics will be prescribedCan develop secondary bacterial infectionPneumonia can be life threatening +++ Demographics ++ Infants and young childrenElderly or frail +++ Signs and Symptoms2 ++ DiarrheaIncreased heart beatLow-grade feverRunny noseMalaisePleurisySore throatCough with productive mucusEdemaChest tightnessRales (crackling sounds in lungs)Swelling of ankles, feet, legsWheezingRaising shoulders allows increased lung air flowShortness of breathTensed muscles from dyspnea +++ Functional Implications ++ Disabling dyspnea when performing simple tasksArm elevation to reach into cabinetDecreased exercise tolerancePatients with mononucleosis should avoid contact sports for six weeks to avoid splenic ruptureRespiratory dysfunction limiting ones ability to function at work +++ Possible Contributing Causes ++ Flu virusRespiratory syncytial virusRhinovirusHerpes simplex virusSevere acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)SmokingAir pollutionAllergiesOccupations with poor air qualityLong-term exposure to lung irritantsEnvironmental irritantsPeriodontal diseaseImmunodeficiency disorders +++ Differential Diagnosis ++ InfluenzaMeaslesAsthmaChickenpoxGastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)Ludwig’s anginaBronchiectasisAdult cystic fibrosis (CF)Kawasaki disease (KD)BronchitisGoiterUpper respiratory tract infectionAsthma (reversible)Central airway obstructionLung tumorTuberculosis +++ Laboratory Tests ++ Viral cultureBlood testNasopharyngeal swab for influenza +++ Imaging ++ Chest x-rayCT scan of sinuses +++ Diagnostic ... Your Access profile is currently affiliated with '[InstitutionA]' and is in the process of switching affiliations to '[InstitutionB]'. Please click ‘Continue’ to continue the affiliation switch, otherwise click ‘Cancel’ to cancel signing in. Get Free Access Through Your Institution Learn how to see if your library subscribes to McGraw Hill Medical products. Subscribe: Institutional or Individual Sign In Username Error: Please enter User Name Password Error: Please enter Password Forgot Password? Forgot Username? Sign in via OpenAthens Sign in via Shibboleth You already have access! Please proceed to your institution's subscription. Create a free a profile for additional features.