Sections View Full Chapter Figures Tables Videos Annotate Full Chapter Figures Tables Videos Supplementary Content ++ SyringomyeliaSyrinxSpinal cord cavitation ++ 336.0 Syringomyelia and syringobulbia ++ G95.0 Syringomyelia and syringobulbia ++ 5H: Impaired Motor Function, Peripheral Nerve Integrity, and Sensory Integrity Associated with Nonprogressive Disorders of the Spinal Cord +++ Description ++ Damage to the spinal cord due to the formation of a fluid filled cavity within the spinal cord +++ Essentials of Diagnosis ++ 4 types of syringomyeliaTypes I, II, IV are developmentalType III is acquired and associated with one of the followingSpinal cord tumorTraumatic myelopathySpinal arachnoiditis and pachymeningitisSecondary myelomalacia from cord compression, infarction or hematomyelia +++ General Considerations ++ Type III syrinx is suspected when a person with a previously stable presentation experiences changes in sensorimotor function after a spinal cord injury that extends above the level of the original injury. +++ Demographics ++ Occurs more often in people with tetra/quadriplegia than in those with paraplegia +++ Signs and Symptoms ++ Pain Spreading sensory lossSpreading motor lossSpasticity or involuntary muscle contraction +++ Functional Implications ++ Progressive loss of function until the problem is treatedLoss of functional mobility and independence with ADLs +++ Possible Contributing Causes ++ Previous spinal cord trauma is a risk factorCongenital spinal malformations +++ Differential Diagnosis ++ StenosisSpondylitisArachnoiditisMeningitisTangier diseaseFabry diseaseAmyloid polyneuropathy +++ Laboratory Tests ++ Spinal tap via lumbar puncture +++ Imaging ++ MRICT scan for detailed imaging ++ Neurologist Neurosurgeon to repair syrinx, restore normal cerebral spinal fluid flow, and relieve pressure on spinal cordNeuro-oncologist Occupational therapistCounselor, psychologist, neuropsychologist ++ Peripheral nerve integrityGaitWheelchair mobilityBalanceStatic sitDynamic sitStatic standDynamic standMoving outside the base of support (BOS)Muscle strengthMuscle recruitmentCoordinationPostural controlPostureROMReflexesDeep tendon reflex (DTR)BabinskiClonusMuscle toneSensationBed mobilityTransfersEnduranceAerobic capacitySelf-careHome managementFine motorRespiratory compromise ++ American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) assessmentMotorSensationASIA classification neurologic levelComplete vs. incompleteFunctional mobilityFunctional independence measure (FIMTM)Wheelchair mobilityTransfersGait (timed up and go, 10-meter walk test, functional gait assessment, walking index for spinal cord injury)Sitting and standing (for people with incomplete injuries or damage in the lower lumbar and sacral levels) Balance tests (sitting reach test, Tinetti, Berg balance scale) Cardiovascular and pulmonary endurance (6-minute walk test) if appropriate, upper extremity (UE) ergometer test)Muscle enduranceSkin assessmentActive and passive ROM, muscle lengthPosture sitting (wheelchair and edge of mat, supported/unsupported) and standing if applicablePain ++ ... Your Access profile is currently affiliated with '[InstitutionA]' and is in the process of switching affiliations to '[InstitutionB]'. Please click ‘Continue’ to continue the affiliation switch, otherwise click ‘Cancel’ to cancel signing in. Get Free Access Through Your Institution Learn how to see if your library subscribes to McGraw Hill Medical products. Subscribe: Institutional or Individual Sign In Username Error: Please enter User Name Password Error: Please enter Password Forgot Password? Forgot Username? Sign in via OpenAthens Sign in via Shibboleth You already have access! Please proceed to your institution's subscription. Create a free a profile for additional features.